ISDN: Concepts, Facilities, and Services, 4th ed.

Gary C. Kessler and Peter V. Southwick

"This book is a first introduction to some of the many aspects of the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). It is intended for those who must learn about ISDN, but feel intimidated by all of the technical jargon commonly found in the current literature. This book will define ISDN terms and explain concepts, allowing the reader to better understand the standards and current literature, as well as vendor's implementation and application specifications.

This book will provide broad coverage to explain what ISDN is, define relevant terms and concepts, describe pertinent standards and protocols, and discuss some of the current ISDN issues, services, trials, and products. In that way, it will serve as a first step in the reader's process of learning about the many aspects of ISDN.

It can be argued that consumers are not interested in technology, but rather in solutions to their problems. In data and telecommunications today, these issues are becoming increasingly inseparable. To truly understand all of the available communications solutions and choose the correct strategy for a given environment and application, there must also be some understanding of the underlying technology. This book will help the reader to get started on that understanding of ISDN.

Much has happened in the evolution of ISDN since this book, and the subsequent edition, were published. Not only have "narrowband" ISDN standards, products, and services evolved and matured, but applications have grown and ISDN is finally beginning to realize its promise. Of even more significance, perhaps, is the emergence of Broadband ISDN (B-ISDN) technologies and services. B-ISDN received passing mention in the first edition of this book and at least one dedicated chapter plus prominent mention in other chapters in the second edition; this treatment was pretty much consistent with what details of B-ISDN were know at the time of the writing. In this edition, B-ISDN occupies a significant portion of the book.

ISDN is an important technology and an important evolution for the telecommunications industry. It is also timely and rapidly moving. This third edition adds more up-to-date information about ISDN products and services, and offers a new focus on B-ISDN services.

(From the Preface)

How to Use This Book

  A Definition of ISDN
  The Forces Driving ISDN
  ISDN Integrated Access
  ISDN Digital Services
  What ISDN Is and Isn't
  Where to From Here

Chapter 1: Telecommunications Background for ISDN
  Communications Basics
    Analog and Digital Signals
    Amplifiers and Repeaters
    Structure of the Telephone Network
      The Pre-Divestiture Network
      The Post-Divestiture Network
    Passband and Bandwidth
    The Telephone Local Loop
  Digital Telephony
    The Move to a Digital Telephone Network
    Digitizing Voice and Pulse Code Modulation
    The Digital TDM Hierarchy
    Digital Signals on the Local Loop
    Full-Duplex Communication on the Local Loop
  Types Of Switched Networks
    Circuit Switching
    Packet Switching
    Fast Packet Technologies
  Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model
    OSI Layers
    Packet Switching and X.25
    Protocol Architectures

Chapter 2: ISDN Terms, Definitions, and Standards
  ISDN Channels
    The D-Channel
    The B-Channel
  Access Interfaces
    Basic Rate Interface
    Primary Rate Interface
  Functional Devices and Reference Points
    ISDN Functional Devices
    ISDN Reference Points
    B-ISDN Channels, Functional Devices, and Reference Points
  Standards Organizations
    The ITU-T
    The American National Standards Institute
    The European Telecommunications Standards Institute
    Other Standards Organizations
    Industry Consortia

Chapter 3: Overview of ISDN Services
  Service Requirements
  ISDN Services
  Bearer Services and Attributes
    Information Transfer Attributes
    Access Attributes
    General Attributes and Supplementary Services 
  Broadband Services
  Sample Service Profiles
    Bearer Service Categories
    Bearer Service Requirements for the United States
    Final Comments

Chapter 4: ISDN Protocol Architecture
   Protocol Planes
   Protocols, Channels, and Reference Points

Chapter 5: Physical Layer Protocols
  The Basic Rate Interface
    ITU-T Recommendation I.430 (S/T Reference Point)
      Physical Connector and Power
      Line Code and Frame Format
      Initializing the BRI Link
    ANSI T1.601 (U Reference Point)
    Non-2B1Q U Reference Point Standards
    Alternate Access Facilities
    BRI Summary
  Primary Rate Interface
    The 1.544-Mbps (1544-kbps) interface
    The 2.048-Mbps (2048-kbps) Interface
    PRI Support of Nx64 and H-Channels

Chapter 6: The D-Channel Data Link Protocol
  Link Access Procedures on the D-Channel
    LAPD Frames
    Flags and Zero-Bit Insertion
    The Control Field and LAPD Frame Types
    LAPD Addressing
  Special Features of LAPD
    Multiplexing, TEIs, and SAPIs
    SAPI and TEI Definitions
    TEI Management
    System Parameters and Timers
    Contention in the Point-to-Multipoint Configuration

Chapter 7: The D-Channel Layer 3 Protocol
  Layer 3 User-Network Signaling
  Message Format
    Protocol Discriminator
    Call Reference
    Message Type
    Other Information Elements
  Basic Circuit-Mode Calls
    Setting a Profile
    Connecting the Call
    Disconnecting the Call
  Basic Packet-Mode and Frame-Mode Calls
    Circuit-Mode Access to Remote Packet Handlers
    B-Channel Access to the ISDN Virtual Circuit Service
    D-channel Access to the ISDN Virtual Circuit Service
    Frame-Mode Calls
  Controlling and Invoking Supplementary Services
    The Keypad Protocol
    The Feature Key Management Protocol
    The Functional Protocol
  The Human-Network Interface in the ISDN Era
  Numbering and Addressing
    Telephone Numbers
    PSPDN Numbering
    ISDN Numbers and Addresses

Chapter 8: Packet and Frame Mode Bearer Services
  X.25 Packet-Mode Services
    X.31 Case A
    X.31 Case B
    X.25 Call Example
  Frame-Mode Bearer Services
    Frame-Mode Data Link Layer Protocol
    FMBS Protocol Architecture
    Frame Relay
    Frame-Mode Call Control

Chapter 9: National ISDN
  National ISDN
    National ISDN Definition
    The Goal of National ISDN
    Initial Players
    National ISDN Focus
  National ISDN-1
  National ISDN-2
  National ISDN-3
  The Future of National ISDN

Chapter 10: Signaling System No. 7
  Network Signaling Systems
    In-band Signaling
    Out-of-Band Signaling
    Common Channel Signaling
    CCS Network Components
    CCS Signaling Modes
    ITU-T Signaling Systems No. 6 and No. 7
  SS7 Protocol Overview
    Message Transfer Part
    MTP Level 1
    MTP Level 2
    MTP Level 3
    Signaling Connection Control Part
    User and Application Parts
    ISDN User Part
    Transaction Capabilities Application Part
    Operations, Maintenance, and Administration Part
    B-ISDN Signaling
  SS7 Services
    800 Services
    Other Data-Based Services
    Private Network Access to SS7
    Custom Local Area Signaling Services
  Advanced Intelligent Networks

Chapter 11: ISDN Applications
  ISDN Applications Overview
  North American ISDN Users' Forum
  Specific ISDN Applications
    Core ISDN Applications
    Additional Applications
  ISDN in Use Today

Chapter 12: ISDN Implementations
  Interface Configurations in the United States
    Primary Rate Configurations
    Basic Rate Configurations
  ISDN Services Offered in the U.S.
    Bearer Service Offerings
      Circuit-Mode Services
        Sub-DS0 Rate Adaption and Inverse Multiplexing
        Circuit-Mode on the B-Channel
        Circuit-Mode on the H-channel
      Packet-Mode Services
        Packet-Mode on the D-channel (Low Speed Packet)
        Packet-Mode on the B-channel (High Speed Packet)
        Packet-Mode on the H-channel (Wideband Packet)
      Frame Mode Services
        Case A Access to Frame Relay
        Case B Access to Frame Relay
    Supplemental Service Offerings
      Circuit-Mode Options
      Packet-Mode Options
    Teleservice Offerings
      Voice/Video Based Teleservices
      Data Based Teleservices
  Provisioning Options in the U.S.
    National ISDN Ordering Codes
    ISDN Service Availability Database
    ISDN Anywhere
  ISDN Activity In The U.S.
    Local Exchange Carrier Activity
    Interexchange Carrier Activity
  International Implementations of ISDN
      United Kingdom
    Other International Activity

Chapter 13: ISDN Products
  Local Exchange Equipment
    AT&T 5ESS
    Nortel (Northern Telecom) DMS-100
    Other ISDN Switches
  Line Termination Equipment and Extenders
  On-Premises Switching and Multiplexing
    ISDN Concentrators, Gateways, and Multiplexers
    Integrated Services Local Area Network/Isochronous Ethernet
  ISDN Terminal Equipment
  Terminal Adapters
  ISDN Chip Sets
  Test Equipment
    Media Testing
    Protocol Monitoring and Testing
    Switch Simulators
    Test Facilities
  Applications Software

Chapter 14: Introduction to Broadband and Fast Packet Services
  Why Do We Need Broadband Services?
    The Need for Speed
    Broadband Applications
    The B-ISDN Challenge
  Fast Packet Switching
  Frame Relay
  Cell Relay and ATM
    Time-Division Multiplexing
    Cell Relay
    Asynchronous Transfer Mode
  Final Comments

Chapter 15: Frame Relay Concepts and Protocols
  Frame Relay Basics
    Frame Relay Definition
    Protocol Architecture
    Permanent and Switched Virtual Circuits
    Frame Relay Standards
  LAPF Protocol Basics
    Frame Relay and X.25
    LAPF Frame Format
    Data Link Connection Identifiers
  Frame Relay Procedures
    Committed Information Rate and Class of Service Parameters
    Congestion in a Frame Relay Network
      Explicit Congestion Notification
      Implicit Congestion Notification
      Consolidated Link Layer Management
    PVC Management Procedures
    Multicast Service
    Customer Network Management
    The Network-to-Network Interface
    Other Extensions to Frame Relay

Chapter 16: Frame Relay Call Control Signaling
  The Need For Switched Virtual Circuits
  Frame Relay SVC Call Control
    Q.933 Case A
    Q.933 Case B
    FRF SVC Implementation Agreement

Chapter 17: Frame Relay Applications, Products, and Services
  Frame Relay Application Issues
  Frame Relay Products
    PC and Host Interfaces
    Protocol Analyzers
    Applications Software
  Frame Relay Services
    Service Providers
    Internet Services Providers Supporting Frame Relay Access
    Frame Relay Over ISDN

Chapter 18: ATM Concepts and Protocols
  ATM Standards, Terms, and Concepts
    ATM Standards Development
    Interfaces and Functional Devices
    ATM Connections
    Cell Size
  B-ISDN Protocol Architecture
  B-ISDN Physical Layer
    Physical Layer Functions
    Media Options
    Cell Transport on Digital Carriers
    Transmission Format for SONET/SDH
  The ATM Layer
    Cell Header and ATM Layer Overview
    Generic Flow Control
    Virtual Path and Channel Identifiers
    Payload Type Discrimination
    Loss Priority Indication
    Bit Error Detection and Cell Delineation
    Traffic Management and Congestion Control
  The ATM Adaptation Layer
    AAL Protocol Types and Service Classes
    AAL Protocol Overview
    AAL Type 1
    AAL Type 2
    AAL Types 3 and 4
    AAL Type 5
    The Service Specific Connection Oriented Protocol
    Delivered Bit Rates With Cell-Based Protocols
  Frame-Based ATM Access Protocols
    The ATM Data Exchange Interface
    Frame User-to-Network Interface
  Other ATM Services
    Interworking With Frame Relay
    Interworking With ISDN
  Concluding Remarks

Chapter 19: ATM Signaling Across the UNI
  DSS 2 Protocol Overview
    DSS 2 Network Layer
  DSS 2 Messages and Formats
    Protocol Discriminator
    Call Reference
    Message Type
    Message Length
    Other Information Elements
    Contents of Information Elements Examples
    ATM Host Addressing
  Signaling Channels
  Call Setup Examples
    Point-to-Point Call Setup and Release
    Point-to-Multipoint Call Setup
    Multiple Connection Call Setup and Termination
    Connectionless Services
  Concluding Comment

Chapter 20: ATM Applications, Products, & Services
    Business and Consumer Applications
    The North Carolina Information Highway
    ATM Application Environments
    ATM Switching Principles
      Switch Fabrics
      Buffering Methods
      Other Switch Characteristics
    Product Examples
      LAN Hubs
      ATM DSUs
      End-System Adapter Cards
      ATM Chips
      ATM Protocol Test Equipment
  Concluding Comments

Chapter 21: Switched Multimegabit Data Service
  Overview and Background
  SMDS Interfaces and Service Features
    Protocol Interfaces and Network Components
    Service Features
      Address Screening
      Source Address Validation
      Performance and Quality of Service Objectives
      Line Rates and Access Classes
      SMDS Customer Network Management
  SMDS User Access Protocols
    User Information Transfer (SIP L3)
    Cell-Based Access at SIP L2
      DQDB-based SIP L2
      ATM and SIP L2
    SIP Level 1
    Data Exchange Interface
    Frame-Based Access to SMDS
  SMDS Applications
  SMDS Products
    Bridges and Routers
    Adapter Cards
    Chip Sets
    Protocol Test Equipment
  SMDS Service Offerings
    SMDS Deployment Phases
    Service Offerings and Cost Elements

Chapter 22: ISDN, B-ISDN, and the Internet
  Accessing The Internet: Why And How?
    Why Use the Internet?
    Access Options
    Choosing the Type of Access Connection
    ISDN Access to the Internet
    Frame Relay Access to the Internet
    SMDS and the Internet
    ATM and the Internet
  ISDN, B-ISDN, and Internet Protocols
    TCP/IP Overview
    IP and ISDN
      IP Over ISDN in Circuit-Mode
      IP Over ISDN in Packet-Mode
      IP and Frame Relay
      IP and SMDS
      IP and ATM
    Network Management

Chapter 23: Digital Subscriber Line Technologies (xDSL)
  Setting the Stage
  Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)
    Technology Overview
    Products, Services, and Trials
    ADSL and ISDN
  Rate Adaptive Digital Subscriber Line (RADSL)
  Very High Bit Rate Digital Subscriber Line (VDSL)
    Technology Overview
    Open Issues and Futures
  High Bit Rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL)
  Single Line, Or Symmetric, Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL)
  ISDN Digital Subscriber Line (IDSL)
  Other Related Technologies
    Cable Modems
    56-kbps Modems

Appendix A:  Abbreviations and Acronyms

Appendix B:  ISDN and B-ISDN Specifications
  ITU-T Recommendations
    I-Series (ISDN) Recommendations
    Q-Series (Signalling) Recommendations Related to ISDN, B-ISDN, and SS7
    X-Series (PSPDN) Recommendations Related to ISDN
  ANSI T1 Standards and Technical Reports (TR)
  ADSL Forum
  ATM Forum Specifications
  Bellcore Documents
  ETSI Documents
  Frame Relay Forum Implementation Agreements
  Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
  IETF Request For Comments (RFC)
  North American ISDN Users' Forum
  SMDS Interest Group Implementation Agreements

Appendix C:  DSS Network Layer Messages and Information Elements
    Call Establishment Messages
    Call Information Phase Messages
    Call Clearing Messages
    Miscellaneous Messages
    Point-to-Multipoint Messages
  Information Elements

Appendix D:  ISDN Information Resources
  Sources of Recommendations, Implementation Agreements, Standards, and Other Specifications
  ISDN Resources On The Internet
    Internet Discussion Lists and USENET Newsgroups
    Internet Information Servers

Glossary of ISDN-Related Terms

ISDN: Concepts, Facilities, and Services (4th ed.), Gary C. Kessler and Peter V. Southwick, McGraw-Hill, 1998, ISBN 0-07-034437-X. 704 pg.; approx. 175 figures and 95 tables. This book may be ordered from McGraw-Hill (1-800-2MCGRAW), your local bookstore, or directly from the first author (+1 802-879-3375 / +1 630-604-5529 fax). It can also be found at several on-line bookstores, including: